Designing capital objects from metal structures is a relevant and controversial topic, which is devoted to many publications and books. In this article, we will consider how the design of capital buildings and structures of metal structures occurs along the entire chain of work. Design issues must be addressed as they become available, as they are the first link in the chain of relationships with the customer. At the same time, building the design chain of capital construction projects, it is important to pay attention to the development of project documentation, the preparation of the project depends on its preparation.
Reinforcing steel is the most commonly used strengthening steel that is usually reinforced in concrete monolithic structures. Two types of reinforcing steel are known in production: hot-rolled bar reinforcing steel with a diameter of 6 to 80 mm and cold-drawn wire reinforcing steel installation billings with a diameter of 2.5 to 8 mm.
Recommendations on the preparation of project documentation are available online in the materials and books related to construction for the customer. You can familiarize yourself with it later.
· The design of capital objects from metal structures is subject to building codes and standards, state standards, as well as legal documents and the Civil Code, which explains many controversial aspects, a lot of which depend on their timely resolution.
Metal and Construction Industries
In fact, among all construction industries, the design field has always been of the greatest interest to lawyers. Therefore, without the legal support of a qualified lawyer, the design of capital objects from metal structures will be impossible. But in addition to the need to analyze the current legislation of the different countries, many other technical questions also need to be answered. Recall that the concept of "design" came from the words for "think, figure out, assume for execution; compose, drawing" and so on.
Therefore, the design of capital objects from metal structures takes place according to a certain scheme and is usually divided into two stages. You can easily learn more about how design is performed and about its stages of execution. All publications are posted on the internet and are available to anyone online.
The definition of design as an activity needs a more detailed description. Since there is no optimal scheme of relations on construction issues in which the design organization participates, the most important thing that the customer should know is, best of all, to conclude a contract with the provision of complex turnkey services.
Where the contractor assumes the functions of the general contractor of all works, including design, for which he is fully responsible. You can, of course, conclude a tripartite agreement between the investor - the payer under the contract, the customer who controls, supervises and accepts the project, as well as the design company. The only thing you need to remember when concluding a tripartite agreement is your ownership of the project.
Capital Objects Design
The design of capital objects from metal structures is a complex design consisting of:
· Stage "Project". This is the main stage in the design of any capital construction projects, including metal structures. The stage, the "Project", is the embodiment of the general technical task and gives a complete picture of what the future structure will be.
· Stage “Working documentation”. This is the development of project documentation, which we wrote about above. The list of documentation is defined in the Decree of the laws of different countries. You can find more details about it on the internet by searching for project documentation and requirements for their content. At this design stage, a description of the project implementation process takes place.
In a construction company, you can order the design of capital objects from metal structures. Several companies are the general contractor for design and construction work, and are ready to cooperate on the type of organization of relations, i.e. "customer - developer".
Reinforcing steel is divided into grades and classes, which are formed depending on the mechanical properties. In construction, the designation of steel classes takes into account the yield strength of the metal and its resistance to tearing. Usually, it is reinforcing steel of class AI - A-VII. Let us take a closer look at the use of steel by grade, following their characteristics and quality.
Different grades of steel for construction
AI grade steel has the lowest yield strength and tears resistance. Therefore, the use of this steel as a working armature is practically impossible. AI grade steel is suitable for the manufacture of reliable and durable mounting loops, clamps, mounting and distribution fittings.
The steel of class A-II with a round profile along the helical generatrix has a temporary tensile strength of about 500 MPa, with a yield strength of 300 MPa. This steel is excellent for the manufacture of non-stressed working fittings and clamps.
The steel of class A-III is considered the most common in the production of non-stressed working fittings. The diameter of steel of class A-III is from 6 to 40 mm, the tensile strength is 600 MPa, and the yield strength is 400 MPa. Due to these characteristics, reinforcing steel of class A-II, I am ideally suited for the manufacture of prestressed reinforced concrete structures used in construction.
The steel of higher strength, starting from class A-IV and ending with A-VII, is used in the manufacture of prestressing reinforcement, which is previously thermally hardened. The manufacturing process is also quite complicated by the fact that the letter "t" is added to class "A", which indicates the index of thermally hardened steel (At-IV, At-V, At-VI, At-VII). In addition, high-strength reinforcing wire made of steel of class B-II and steel ropes can be used in the manufacture of prestressing reinforcement.
The fittings used in construction are always stored under canopies of steel sorted by grade and diameter, profiles, and lots. Therefore, it must have tags indicating the steel grade and its passport data. Reinforcing steel of high classes can be used instead of steel of lower classes, taking into account the same diameter of the rods. Reinforcing steel of the lower classes cannot be used in the construction industry instead of high-grade steel. Replacement is not permitted under any circumstances.
Reinforcing steel manufactured in the factory must have a quality certificate, passport, indicating all the main characteristics of the metal (composition, strength indicators, etc.). If there is no certificate and passport, then reinforcing steel will be tested for strength by a standard method. If reinforcing steel is characterized by:
· A high degree of uniformity of structure
· Does not detect noticeable loss of prestress due to creep and relaxation; it has insignificant sensitivity to intercrystalline corrosion when exposed to reinforcing agents of the aggressive environment (moisture, gases, etc.)
· Not fragile, capable of local overvoltages, sudden rupture and kink