The primary purpose of the electric drill is to drill various materials. The calculation of technical indicators in the new model design is based on the tasks. During operation, the electric motor rotates the chuck with a drill clamped in it. You will also need core drill bits for proper task completion. The speed is controlled using a special rheostat using a start button. You can also change the direction of movement by switching the reverse lever. The function of changing the direction of rotation will help if the drill jammed at the exit during drilling. With special nozzles, the drill becomes a screwdriver - to twist and unscrew the screws.
The versatility of the tool
Often drills have two or more speed levels. A gearbox connecting the engine to the working shaft manages the speed. A change in the gear ratio leads to a rotation speed change and power of the working tool.
Power tools have two main operating modes; normal drilling and hammer drilling. The regular mode is used during locksmith and carpentry. Hammer drilling makes holes in stone walls, concrete and brick.
The impact mechanism of the drill consists of two coaxially located ratchets. When these coaxial ratchets interact, they give the working shaft an additional translational movement. In this case, special drills with carbide bits work better. The impact force of such a mechanism depends on the external pressure on the drill. For drilling to proceed quickly, a force of 10–15 kg must be applied to the body.
Preparation for work
Before you move on for the operation, ensure these following conditions:
· The device is connected to a power outlet (for drills operating on the mains);
· The battery is charged and installed in the compartment (for cordless tools);
· A drill is installed in the chuck.
To make a hole smooth, the cutting edge of the drill must be sharpened. Take a new drill or grind the old with a grindstone.
To check the power, you can press the start button. If the cartridge rotates quickly, then an electric current flows fine to the motor, and the tool is ready for operation. If the cartridge of the cordless drill rotates slowly, it means the battery is discharged - it must be put on charge.
How to insert a bit?
To properly insert a bit into a chuck, you need to know the following:
· The hole intended for clamping the tool has a depth of no more than 2 cm.
· The deeper the drill is set, the more reliable it will be held in the chuck.
The clamping mechanisms of the cartridges are of two types:
· Tightened by the force of the hand;
· Wrapped with a key.
In recent years, household models of drills are equipped with a manual (quick-clamping) chuck - it is simpler to operate and faster to operate.
To install the bit into the chuck, you need to follow these steps:
· Turn the cartridge counterclockwise. The sponges should extend a distance slightly larger than the diameter of the bit.
· Insert the bit between the jaws.
· Gently turn the chuck clockwise, making sure that the drill bit is clamped evenly on all sides.
· Tighten the jaws by hand or with a wrench.
Attention! Before drilling, turn on the drill and look at the bit.
How to pull a bit out of a chuck?
Before removing the bit, make sure that the drill is disconnected. Pull out the drill only after the rotation of the chuck is completely stopped.
Attention! Never break the cartridge with your hands; this may result in personal injury.
If the drill is equipped with a quick chuck, the steps for removing the bit are as follows:
· Remove finger from the start button.
· Wait until the cartridge completely stops.
· Hold the cartridge by the base with one hand. With your other hand, turn it counterclockwise.
· When the jaws of the chuck move away from a sufficient distance, remove the bit.
· Carefully place the drill on the table, making sure that it does not roll away.
If the drill is equipped with a key holder, do the following:
· Turn off the drill, wait for the cartridge to stop.
· Insert the key into the hole in the cartridge.
· Turn the key counterclockwise so that it moves the chuck.
· Unscrew the chuck by hand so that the jaws release the bit.
· Remove drill bit from the chuck.
How to use a drill?
The drill is a powerful electric tool and a source of danger. The basic rules for safe work with the drill are as follows:
· Before starting work, securely fasten the vise clamp. Do not hold the part in your hands.
· Firmly fasten the drill or tool in the chuck. Tighten the cartridge by hand or tighten with a wrench. Be sure to remove the key from the hole in the cartridge.
· When working with hard and massive materials, hold the power tool with both hands.
· Do not press hard on the drill body so that the drill does not jam. Reduce the pressure at the drill exit.
· Use personal protective equipment: goggles, respirator, gloves, etc.
· Switch modes and change the tool only after the cartridge stops completely.
· Sweep away chips with a brush only.
How to make a vertical or horizontal hole
To make a vertical or horizontal hole, you must perform the following steps:
· Mark the location for the hole.
· Install a drill of the required diameter in the chuck.
· Hold the tool and set the drill to the mark.
· Gently start the engine and press on the drill body.
· When the hole is ready, take out the drill without turning off the motor.
· Release the start button, wait for the cartridge to stop.
· Put the drill on a flat surface.
Attention! Do not be distracted from work until the hole is completely ready.
How to drill metal
Certain drill machines can even penetrate the metal. First of all, you need to choose a drill designed for these purposes. A wood or stone drill is not suitable for metal, stainless steel or cast iron. These drills differ not only in the grade of steel, but also in the angle of sharpening of the cutting edge.
When working with the metal, there is no need to rotate the drill at high speed. The optimal speed when drilling metal is low when you can see how thin chips are formed with the naked eye. The pressure on the drill can be significant. However, within reasonable limits, the drill does not break. When drilling steel and cast iron, it is recommended to lubricate the drill with engine oil for cooling.
How to drill concrete
When drilling concrete, stone or brick, a lot of dust is released; small fragments can fly out from under the drill. You must use a respirator to protect your respiratory system and goggles to protect your eyes.
Tip: You can reduce the amount of dust by wetting the object that you intend to drill.
Attention! While drilling stone and concrete, the drill gets very hot. Before replacing the tool, wait for it to cool so as not to get a burn.
Among many drill nozzles of an electric drill manufactured by industry, there are also such types, such as a pump nozzle for pumping liquids or a special nozzle for plucking feathers of poultry. They are not so often used by carpenters and locksmiths tools.An electric drill can save money and power. For home and one-time work, you do not need to buy several professional machines. Special nozzles will make the tool universal: drilling and cutting, grinding and turning, kneading and chiseling. This is not a complete list of operations available for a drill. For a smooth and sound work, you must follow the safety rules.